CHAPTER 13     BIRDS AND MAMMALS

ARCHAEOPTERYX - means ancient winged thing
        found in limestone quarry in Germany in 1861 by Hermann von Meyer
        fossil imprint of a feather
        found skeleton with feathers
        skeleton had teeth
        long bony tail
        looked like reptile with wings   
        live 145 million years ago
http://huehueteotl.files.wordpress.com/2007/06/archaeopteryx.jpg


KINGDOM ANIMAL
    PHYLUM CHORDATA or Chordate
        CLASS AVES  "TO FLY OR WITH WING"
            examples robin, sparrow, pheasant, ostrich, etc
            characteristics : 
                    endothermic
                    vertebrate
                    feathers
                    four chambered heart
                    lays amniotic egg

                    scales on feet and legs
                    most can fly
                    forelimbs form wings
                    nearly hollow bones
                    large air sacs on lungs

CONTOUR FEATHERS - large feathers that give shape to a bird's body
            for flight and help in steering and balance   


PREENING - helps bird "zip" barb back together and smooth ruffled feathers

The Anatomy of a Feather
1. SHAFT - also called RACHIS is the center of a contour feather
 2. BARB -
hair like projection from the shaft arranged parallel to each other
 3. BARBULES  -
small projections from the barbs the intersect with other barbules
 4. HOOKLETS -
interlocking projections off barbules
 5. VANE -
consists of hundreds of tiny barbs that branch off of either side of the rachis
 6. QUILL -
start pf feather shaft

DOWN FEATHERS - soft and flexible mingle and overlap
small with poorly developed vane
 and no interlocking barbules
cover hatchling birds
provide insulation in most adults
They lie under the contour feathers
insulator - material that does not conduct heat well and help prevent it from escaping

 

FEEDING AND BODY TEMPERATURE
flying and high body temperature 104 degrees Fahrenheit uses tremendous amounts of energy
    
http://www.msstate.edu/dept/poultry/pics/anatomy.jpg    
     bird has no teeth
            bill 's helps it feed quickly and efficiently
            eats 1/4 body weight every day
   
CROP -  stores and softens food after it is swallowed
    stomach covers food in chemical to begin breaking it down

    GIZZARD - contains many small stones bird has swallowed
                act like teeth to grind food up

AIR SACS - connect to lungs enable birds to extract much more oxygen in each breath than other animals        

http://www.answersingenesis.org/creation/images/v21/i4/p15_diagram.jpg

FOUR CHAMBERED HEART

FOUR CHAMBERED HEART oxygenated and deoxygenated blood do not mix
      two atria
      two ventricles
           right ventricle pumps to lungs
           left ventricle pumps to rest of body

NERVOUS SYSTEM AND SENSES
       well developed brain
       finely tuned senses of sight ( better than human) and hearing

REPRODUCTION AND CARRYING FOR YOUNG
        internal fertilization
        lay amniotic egg - shell is harder than reptiles
        care for young in next
        incubate eggs by sitting on them to keep them warm
          each species has different lengths of time form chicks to develop in eggs and hatch

Egg

BIRD DIVERSITY
        adaptations for flight
        shapes of legs, claws, and bills allow birds to live  in many environments

Bird beak
Bird beaks: different types of birds mouths, made up of jaws covered by horny mandibles. They do not contain teeth.
Duck: migrating long-flight bird.
Gull: fish-eating bird that inhabits shores.
Eagle: bird of prey that inhabits mountaintops.
Cross bill: bird whose mandibles cross at the end.
Night hawk: nocturnal bird that catches insects by flying with its large beak open.
Avocet: wading bird with a beak that curves upward.
Wood pecker: climbing bird that feeds off larvae found in the bark of trees.
Parrot and Cockatoos: exotic bird able to imitate humain speech and other sounds.
Flamingo: large bird with pink feathers, a long neck and a wide layered beak.
Kiwi: flightless bird of New Zealand. Eats worms and lays its egg in mud.
Spoon bill: wading bird with a long, flat beak.
Pelican: fish-eating bird with a pouched beak which is used to store fish to feed its young.


BIRD IMPORTANCE
        provide food with eggs, and flesh
        clothing
        predators of pest animals
        carry pollen
        carry seeds in waste
        songs are pleasing                
  

     CHAPTER 13    SECTION 2     THE PHYSICS OF BIRD FLIGHT

Air is a mixture of gas molecules that exert pressure on the objects they surround
Moving air exerts less pressure than air that is not moving
The faster air moves the less pressure it exerts
Air moves faster over the upper surface of a birds wing
THE DIFFERENCE IN PRESSURE ABOVE AND BELOW THE BIRD'S WING PRODUCES AN UPWARD FORCE THAT CAUSES THE WING TO RISE
LIFT- the upward force

    flapping flight is used by birds to travel long distances 
    soaring and gliding flight involve little wing moment
    birds can uses currents of rising warm air to circle higher
http://www.paulnoll.com/Oregon/Birds/flight-lift.jpg

CHAPTER 13   SEC  3  WHAT IS A MAMMAL

KINGDOM ANIMAL
    PHYLUM CHORDATA
        CLASS  - MAMMAL
                characteristics :
                    endothermic
                    vertebrates
                    four chambered heart
                    fur or hair
                    have mammary gland
                    have teeth of different shape adapted to their diet
            appeared 270 million years ago

        FUR OR HAIR - light weight insulation
                grows form living cell below skin surface
                sea otter has most 150,000 per square cm

        FAT - insulting
                cushion
                floats
                food reserve

        TEETH - size, shape, and hardness reflects its diet
            INCISORS - flat edged used to bite off and cut parts of food
            CANINES - sharply pointed , stab food and tear into it
            PREMOLARS AND MOLARS - used to grind and shred food into tiny bits

NERVOUS SYSTEM AND SENSES - enable them to learn, remember and behave in complex ways
        senses highly developed
                some see color
                most hear well
                most have a highly developed sense of smell

MOVEMENT  limbs are adapted  to    walk, run, hop, swing, glide, burrow, fly, swim
REPRODUCTION AND CARING FOR YOUNG
        internal fertilization
        MAMMARY GLANDS - produced milk that is used to feed young
        young stay with mothers for extend time to learn

CHAPTER 13    SECTION 4     DIVERSITY OF MAMMALS

THERE ARE 3 GROUPS OF MAMMALS THEY ARE CLASSIFIED BY HOW THEIR YOUNG DEVELOP
      1.  Monotremata
            2 families of mammals
             lay eggs with leathery shells
            nourish the young with milk from belly pores: 
           EXAMPLES  
duck-billed platypus and  spiny anteaters

  
      2.  Marsupials
            mammals whose young are in an immature state when born
                    young are blind pink hairless
            very short gestation period - length of time between fertilization and birth
                young find nipple and attach to it
            young develop in pouches most females have pouches

            EXAMPLES: opossums (live in USA PLAY DEAD have 21 young but only 13 nipples first to hook on live) kangaroos( found in Australia are herbivores young are called joeys), wallaby, wombats, koalas extinct Tasmanian wolf

 
        3 Placental mammals develop inside mother's body until its own body system can function independently               
                PLACENTA - an organ in pregnant female mammal
                    developed by the embryo
                    passes material between the mother and developing embryo
                    food and wastes diffuse through this organ
                    mothers body removes waste
                    the larger the placental mammal the longer its gestation period

PLACENTAL MAMMALS ARE CLASSIFIED BY HOW THEY EAT AND HOW THEY ARE ADAPTED FOR MOVING
   
Order Artiodactyla (even-toed ungulates: antelope, deer, camels, pigs, cows, sheep, hippos, )   herbivores
http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/images/d/d0/Artiodactyla-1.jpg

 Bushpig (Potamochoerus porcus), TanzaniaAmerican bison
    Order Carnivora (carnivores: cats, bears  weasels)
                have large incisors, meat eaters
   


    Order Cetacea (whales, dolphins)
                ocean dwellers, swim have a blow hole to breath with

    Order Chiroptera (bats)
                can fly, use echo location to find food
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/cf/Chiroptera_001M.jpg/450px-Chiroptera_001M.jpg      http://universe-review.ca/I10-82-bat.jpg


    Order Insectivora ( hedgehogs, moles, shrews)        
                insect-eaters

 
    Order Lagomorpha (rabbits, hares, pikas)
                have long hind legs for jumping, herbivores
http://www.dkimages.com/discover/previews/978/50491384.JPG                     http://pandageant.ifrance.com/images/pika.jpg

 
       Order Perissodactyla (odd-toed ungulates: horses, rhinos, tapirs)
                herbivores
http://www.thefreedictionary.com/_/viewer.aspx?path=hm&name=A4hoof   http://www.cd.sc.ehu.es/DOCS/nearnet.gnn.com/mag/10_93/articles/cricket/graphics/tapir.gif
 
    Order Primates (apes, monkeys, lemurs, people)
                most developed brain


http://a.abcnews.com/images/Technology/ht_primate_071025_ms.jpg

 
http://homepage.mac.com/wildlifeweb/primate/art/PrimateArt.html

     Order Proboscidea (elephants, mammoths)
                 have a long nose called a trunk


    Order Rodentia (rodents: rats, mice, squirrels, gerbils,  beaver)
                gnawing mammals  incisors grow as long as they live

  
    Order Sirenia (sea cows, manatees)


http://www.nrca.org/yourenv/biodiversity/Species/gifs/manatee.jpg
    Order Edentata  (sloth, armadillos)

 
http://cas.bellarmine.edu/tietjen/Laboratories/Mammalian%20orders/armadillos.jpg                                          http://arnica.csustan.edu/boty1050/Evolution/sloth_extant.jpg

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